An egg is made up of three main components: shell, egg white and egg yolk.
The shell, together with the inner membranes and the cuticle, constitutes a barrier that opposes the entry of microorganisms from the outer surface towards the inside of the egg. If you are among those who consider eggs with a dark shell more genuine and nutritious than those with a white shell, be aware that it is only a false belief: the colour of the shell depends exclusively on the breed of hens!
The albumen, also known as egg white, occupies 60% of the egg’s volume and consists of about 88% water, 10% protein and small amounts of sugars and minerals.
The egg yolk, on the other hand, is the constituent of the egg that is richest in nutrients. It is made up of approximately 50% water and 30% lipids, while the rest is made up essentially of proteins.
Approximately 58% of a whole egg is made from egg white, 33% from yolk and 9% from shell. This subdivision indicates that, on average, by breaking down a large egg of about 70 g (class L) into its 3 components, the egg white will weigh 41 g, the yolk 23 g and the shell 6 g.
At first glance, the eggs may all look the same to each other but, in reality, they have some characteristics that clearly distinguish them from one another. In fact, it is possible to subdivide them by size (S, M, L, XL), freshness (fresh or extra-fresh) and type of breeding (organic, free-range, cage-free, standard).
An egg weighs on average about 58 grams, but there are different types of sizes:
S – small: weighing less than 53 g
M – medium: weighing 53 g or more but less than 63 g
L – large: weighing 63 g or more but less than 73 g
XL – very large: weighing 73 g or more
VC – of various sizes: eggs that can be of size S, M, L or XL. By law, packs of eggs of various size must have a guaranteed minimum net weight
These weight categories are established by the legislation on eggs (RegCE 589 of 24-06-08)
By law, all eggs must have an identification code on their eggshell that tells their story. We therefore guarantee the traceability of each individual egg through a code that makes it possible to trace the type of farming, state of production, province, municipality and address of the farm. For additional safety, on the shell we also indicate the minimum shelf life.
In organic farms, hens are raised outdoors and fed exclusively with organically farmed feed.
In antibiotic-free farms, eggs are laid in an integrated and certified supply chain in which antibiotics are not administered at any stage of the life cycle of the hens.
In our free-range farming, hens live in total freedom, bred in large open spaces with vegetation and shelters.
In our barns, hens are free to hatch indoors and lay their eggs in nests.
This type of livestock belongs to the standard type, the hens are fed with safe and controlled feed produced by us.
Vitamin A: supports the immune system, is essential for the eyesight and differentiation of cells, protects the skin and promotes bone growth
Vitamin E: it is an antioxidant that counteracts ageing and, in addition, supports the immune system by promoting the transmission of signals from cell to cell
Vitamin D: essential for bone growth, development and remodelling
B vitamins (B1, B2, PP, B12): essential to the functions of the metabolism, contribute to the production of energy through the demolition of numerous substances
Magnesium: basic for our body, it performs numerous functions, including participation in the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction
Calcium: main mineral in the composition of bones and teeth, is also important for heart, nerves, blood and muscles
Potassium: regulates the body’s water balance while also helping to control blood pressure
Phosphorus: supports metabolism in energy production, transmission of nerve impulses and kidney function
Zinc, Lutein and Zeaxanthin: counteract ageing processes
Iron: indispensable for the transport of oxygen in the body through blood
Choline and Methionine: essential amino acids for the metabolic demolition of fats
Eggs, despite a high amount of nutrients, have a modest calorie intake. An average egg of about 50 grams, without the shell, contains about 64 kcal. Comparing the calories with those of other foods of animal origin (per hectare of raw food), an egg has 43 kcal less than turkey thigh, 82 kcal less than ricotta cheese and 129 kcal less than a small bluefish.
After purchase, eggs should be stored in the refrigerator. They are susceptible to temperature changes and therefore it is advisable to leave them in the sales packaging and place them at the bottom of the fridge, where they will be kept at a constant temperature.
According to the Healthy Diet Guidelines developed by the CREA (Council for Agricultural Research and Analysis of the Agricultural Economy), eggs are among the main foods constituting a balanced diet. Thanks to the presence of numerous nutrients and microelements, versatility in the kitchen and low cost, they represent a complete and genuine element within a healthy and varied diet.
A study published in January 2020*, carried out on three large previous studies involving around 177,000 people from 50 countries, 146,000 of whom are healthy and 31,000 with cardiovascular disease, showed that eating one egg a day has no impact on blood cholesterol levels, the incidence of serious cardiovascular events such as heart attacks and mortality.
What can make the difference for cardiovascular risk purposes is the simultaneous intake of cholesterol and saturated fats, a particular category of fats present, for example, in butter and meat, which can amplify the atherogenic risk. Saturated fats are present in no more than 30% of the egg. The Guidelines, taking into account that the egg is also present as an ingredient in many industrial products and preparations, currently recommend, even in the presence of hypercholesterolaemia, a weekly consumption of 2-4 eggs, without forgetting that you can also use only egg white, as it is cholesterol-free.
Association of egg intake with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 177,000 people in 50 countries”. (The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2020 Jan)
In everyday life we receive information about foods and diets to follow but, in many cases, it is information without a scientific basis. For this reason, we have started an educational project with Dr. Nutritionist Biologist Martina Donegani in order to debunk the false myths about eggs, give value to their nutritional characteristics and reveal every curiosity.